The application of high resolution ESR to the investigation of various biological systems is discussed. The advantages of the technique in the study of structural, conformational and dynamic characteristics have been exemplified by spin-labeled human serum albumin, egg lysozyme, liposome membranes, inverted micelles, a -chymotrypsin, cotton fiber and cellulose. The polarity of the microenvironment and the mechanism of molecular mobility of the objects under study have been determined. The combination of high resolution and saturation transfer techniques has been shown to give a detailed analysis of very slow molecular motions in biological objects. Peroxide radicals in biosystems have been identified from their ESR spectra at the 2-mm wave band